Topic: Phathophysiology & Pharmacology
3x Internet sources allowed – • Task
choose ONE of the following drug pairs and to COMPARE and CONTRAST the similarities and differences between the drugs with respect to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
• ibuprofen/paracetamol (oral)
• tramadol/morphine (oral)
• salmeterol/ipratropium (topical)
• enalapril/irbesartan (oral)
• vancomycin/gentamicin (parenteral)
• Use the non-proprietary (non-commercial) names for the drug pair throughout the essay. The drug delivery route is shown in brackets. Apply resources such as journal articles, medical and scientific text books, and scientific web based resources (e.g. NIH website, American Heart Association website) to support your essay content. DO NOT use commercial non-government websites.
• It is recommended to self-check your essay assignment by using the marking rubric provided.
• The essay assignment will comprise;
• 1. A brief descriptive single short sentence title of approximately 10 words (see marking rubric for criteria);
• 2. Introduce both drugs and specify their actions and indications in a single paragraph;
• 3. The pharmacokinetics of each drug by comparing and contrasting the following;
• a. Brief administration route of the drugs and then detail how the drugs are absorbed
• b. Bioavailability and half-life of the drugs
• c. Distribution of the drugs in the body
• d. Metabolism of the drugs
• e. Excretion of the drugs
• 4. Detail and compare the pharmocodynamics of the drugs. Include the following information:
• a. Compare/Contrast the mechanism of action of the drugs. If this is currently unknown, what is it thought to be?
• b. Explain how the mechanism of action of the drug is related to the side effects & potential adverse events.
• Writing format. See notes under Presentation.
• This assignment is designed to develop your ability to identify and communicate scientific details in a concise written format, using appropriate citation and reference page. The word limit is a maximum and markers are not required to read beyond the set word limit. This is in essay format and subheadings, dot points, figures and tables are NOT to be used. Remember that you are required to compare and contrast the characteristics of the drugs not just list the characteristics of each. The assignment should be written in a fluent and economical sentence structure in paragraph format and include correctly formatted citation and reference page according to APA referencing style. A copy of the APA Referencing guide is available in the Interact site and the citation and reference list formatting must rigidly adhere to this style (Marks will be deducted for incorrect formatting). The reference list page (in APA format) should follow the main section and would not be expected to contain more than 6 references including at least one recent journal article relevant to the topic.
• The assignment file must be submitted via EASTS in *.doc, *.docx, or *.rtf format (not PDF), and include a word count below the references list.
• The purpose of this assessment item is to allow students to explore in greater detail important subject content areas.
• This assessment item assesses the following learning outcomes provided in this subject outline (p.3):
* define common pharmacological terms;
* describe the four pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination);
• Marking criteria
• Marking criteria (total /20)
• Professional Knowledge: 16 marks given for the descriptive title, the introduction, comparison of the drug pairs with respect to their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics & side effects.
Academic Writing Conventions: This assignment is in the format of an essay style. 4 marks given for correct grammar/spelling, use of appropriate citation and references in APA format, use of appropriate scientific language and writing style. Please note that this is a bioscience assignment and extensive discussion of clinical care is not appropriate.
Assignment 1 Student Name: Student Number:
Criteria HD DI CR PS FL
1. Descriptive title informing the reader of the drug used to treat it including the drug class and basic mechanism.
(1 marks) Title is concise and detailed. A simple short sentence that includes the drugs, drug classes. Clearly informs the reader of the content of the assignment. Title is detailed. A simple short sentence that includes the drug, drug class and basic mechanism. Informs the reader of the content of the assignment but is not concise. Title includes the drugs, drug class and basic mechanisms but is not concise or is lacking in detail.
Title present but lacks detail. Sentence is not concise or lacks detail.
Does not include one or more of the drug, drug class or the basic mechanism. No title, short or overly long title or lacking detail of the drugs, drug class or mechanisms.
Unclear what the content of the assignment will be.
Potential marks 1 0.85 0.75 0.5 <0.5
2. Introduce the drugs.
Detailed single paragraph that presents a concise/essential comparison of the drugs so that the reader is clear on the essay content.
(3 marks) Information flows in a proficient and logical format.
Succinct and detailed comparison of the chosen drugs that shows depth of knowledge in how the drugs are used to treat disease. Substantial integration of the drug class(es) and basic drug mechanisms. Information flows in a substantially logical format.
Detailed description and comparison of the chosen drugs that substantially shows how the drugs are used to treat disease. Some integration of the drug class(es) and basic drug mechanisms. Information flows in a mostly logical format.
Description that shows basic proficiency of how the drugs are used to treat disease. Describes the drug class(es) and basic drug mechanisms. Information present but does not flow logically in parts. Description shows some understanding of how the drugs are used to treat disease but comparisons are not directly made. Describes some details of the drug class(es) and basic drug mechanisms. Little to no logical flow of information. Does not undertake a drug comparison format. Missing details of the drug class(es) and basic drug mechanisms.
Potential marks 3 2.5 2 1.5 <1.5
3. Compare and contrasts the pharmacokinetics of the drugs and how factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination impact on bioavailability and half-life.
(5 marks) Succinct introduction to the drugs. Detailed description of the pharmacokinetics including how factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination are linked to the choice of delivery method(s), the bioavailability and half-life.
Substantial integration of pharmacokinetic factors evident with strong links made between these factors. Mostly succinct introduction to the drugs. Includes all elements of pharmacokinetics. Describes most factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination and their impact on bioavailability and half-life.
Moderate integration of pharmacokinetic factors with links made between factors. Introduction to the drugs showing drug comparisons. Pharmacokinetic elements present but lacks some details. Describes several factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination and their impact on bioavailability and half-life by linking these elements.
Some integration of pharmacokinetic factors with the links made between factors. Adequate introduction of the drugs at a basic level of comparison.
Elements of the pharmacokinetics are missing or vague. Identifies some factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination and their affect on bioavailability and half-life.
Very little or basic integration of pharmacokinetic factors evident with the links made between factors. The drugs are not introduced or described. Drug comparison lacking. Lacks detail of the pharmacokinetics. Does not display sufficient knowledge of the elements of pharmacokinetics.
Excess clinical information.
Potential marks 5 5.5 4 3 <3
4. Comparison of the drug pharmacodynamics
(6 marks) Detailed and concise comparison of how the drugs manifest effects on the body.
Clearly describes and links how the drug mechanism may manifest side effects or adverse events. Detailed comparison of how the drugs manifest effects on the body.
Describes how the drug mechanism may manifest side effects or adverse events. Mostly detailed comparison of how the drugs manifest effects on the body and how the drug mechanism may manifest side effects or adverse events Adequate comparison of how the drugs manifest effects on the body.
Lists the majority of side effects or adverse events but provides few details on the links of how the drugs may manifest these. Does not effectively follow a Compare and Contrast format;
Or lacks important information with regards to how the drug manifests effects on the body;
Or side effects/adverse events not included.
Potential marks 6 5 4 3 <3
5. Academic writing conventions and referencing.
(3 marks) No errors in spelling and grammar.
Very effective sentence flow and paragraph format. Concise scientific writing. Very limited errors in spelling and grammar.
Writing is mostly concise with effective sentence flow and paragraph format. Minor spelling and grammar errors.
Writing is understandable with reduced instances where there is a lack logical flow of information, not concise, or be unscientific. Some instances of ineffective sentence flow and paragraph format. A range of spelling and grammar errors.
Writing is understandable but has a range of instances where there lacks logical flow of information, not concise or is unscientific; or parts showing ineffective sentence flow and paragraph format. Multiple spelling and grammar errors.
Writing is informal, illogical, not concise or unscientific; or shows ineffective sentences and paragraph format. Excessive word count. Use of direct quotations.
Potential marks 3 2.5 2 1.5 <1.5
6. APA Referencing
(2 marks) Thoroughly complies with APA citation and reference page formatting. Minor errors in compliance with APA citation and reference page formatting. Some errors in compliance with APA citation and reference page formatting. A range of errors shown with APA citation and reference page formatting. Many inappropriate reference sources used such as commercial websites or those set up for general public education (ie non-academic);
Or little/no within paragraph citation included and/or a reference page included.
Potential marks 2 1.75 1.5 1 <1
Bonus mark for peer reviewed journal article inclusion (1 mark) Multiple (>3) journal articles (peer reviewed) Three journal articles (peer reviewed) Two journal article (peer reviewed) One journal article (peer reviewed) Standard textbooks and substantial reliance on pharmacology database resources only.
Potential marks 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0
Max mark possible is 20. Total mark achieved:
Late penalty: Adjusted mark:
• All written assignments in this subject must show the following presentation standards:
o 1½ line spacing and left-justified only
o Times New Roman 12-point font
o Paragraph format of approximately 4-8 sentences
o Pages must be numbered and your name &/or student number appear in the footer of each page
o Pages should be set to A4
o Minimum of 2 cm margins around the text
o Proof-read your work before submission – your work should be free of grammatical, spelling and typographical errors
o Reference list must be in APA format
Students have access to TURNITIN in order to self-check their work for similarity to other authors. It is highly recommended to all students make use of this facility.
Include a word count below the reference list. The word count is from start of first paragraph to end of final paragraph.